A Systematic Review of Risky Behaviors in Adolescence and its Related Factors: Evidence from the Iran

Document Type : Systematic Review


1 Associate Professor of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.

2 Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

3 Professor, Pediatric Endocrinologist, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

4 MSc Student of Health Education and Promotion, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran.

5 MD, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.



Introduction: Adolescence is one of the most challenging, stressful, attractive, and at the same time most problematic periods of life for both adolescents and parents, teachers, and health providers. We aimed to evaluate the tendency to high-risk behaviors and its related factors associated with adolescent risk behaviors among Iranian adolescents.
Materials and Methods: In this systematic review, the online databases (Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, CIVILICA, and Google Scholar search engine) were reviewed with no time limit up to July 2022. Two reviewers evaluated the quality of eligible studies and carried out the selection procedure. The quality of the data was evaluated using the STROBE guidelines.
Results: Finally, 22 studies were included. The prevalence of high-risk behaviors in adolescents were 63.1% (ranged: 5.4-63.1%). The selected studies highlighted five forms of high-risk behaviors including hookah smoking (6.9-59%), cigarettes smoking (10.9-44.1%), substance abuse (1.8-31.1%), sexual risk behaviors (14.5-41.6%), and violence (23.4%), respectively.  There was a significant negative relationship between religious tendencies and risky behaviors of students. There was a significant relationship between age, gender, field of study, health literacy, family income, family structure, attachment to family and peers, commitment to norms, belief in moral principles, social inhibitions, and tendency to high-risk behaviors (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The prevalence of high-risk behaviors in adolescents was high. The supply of tobacco products to teenagers should be prohibited. It is important to create healthy entertainment such as sports and cultural competitions, develop programs and designing educational interventions in order to prevent risky behaviors and increase communication skills and self-efficacy in adolescents. In addition, strengthening religious beliefs in adolescents, by parents and teachers suggest.